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A central theme of modern materials science has been the exploration of the relationship between the microstructure of a material and its macroscopic properties. Beginning in the late 19th century, the developing field of metallography permitted scientists to view the microstructure of metal alloys. Mechanical polishing followed by selective chemical etching produced differential relief on chemically distinct phases or at grain boundaries. With such specimens, reflection optical microscopydoi:10.1017/s1551929500057503 fatcat:muphavv3dzdetaxs4utatfdnsq