Genetic distance and social compatibility in the aggregation behavior of Japanese toad tadpoles [article]

Kazuko Hase, Masato S. Abe, Masakazu Shimada
2018 bioRxiv   pre-print
AbstractFrom microorganism to vertebrates, living things often exhibit social aggregation. One of anuran larvae, dark-bodied toad tadpoles (genus Bufo) are known to aggregate against predators. When individuals share genes from a common ancestor for whom social aggregation was a functional trait, they are also likely to share common recognition cues regarding association preferences, while greater genetic distances make cohesive aggregation difficult. In this study, we conducted quantitative
more » ... ted quantitative analyses to examine aggregation behavior among three lineages of toad tadpoles: Bufo japonicus japonicus, B. japonicus formosus, and B. gargarizans miyakonis. To determine whether there is a correlation between cohesiveness and genetic similarity among group members, we conducted an aggregation test using 42 cohorts consisting of combinations drawn from a laboratory-reared set belonging to distinct clutches. As genetic indices, we used mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II alleles. The results clearly indicated that aggregation behavior in toad tadpoles is directly influenced by genetic distances based on mtDNA sequences and not on MHC haplotypes. Cohesiveness among heterogeneous tadpoles is negatively correlated with the geographic dispersal of groups. Our findings suggest that social incompatibility among toad tadpoles reflects phylogenetic relationships.
doi:10.1101/453316 fatcat:epva5o3ghzau7gz6shthsref7e