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Using sociotechnical transitions literature, this paper analyses the early market introduction of electric city-buses in Europe. It identifies the role of bus manufacturers and their corresponding choices of alternative powertrain and charging technologies. Study results contrast the traditional dichotomy of incumbents versus niche actors and questions perceived role of incumbents as a homogenous group of actors. The paper proposes an alternative to the typical perception of industry incumbentsdoi:10.1504/ijatm.2016.080787 fatcat:qavp5bopqnccxgswxd4mg6kgme