The effect of high-molecular-weight guar gum on net apparent glucose absorption and net apparent insulin and gastric inhibitory polypeptide production in the growing pig: relationship to rheological changes in jejunal digesta
British Journal of Nutrition
The present study was designed to determine the quantitative effects of starchy meals containing guar gum on rates of net apparent glucose absorption and net apparent insulin and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) production in growing pigs. The effects of these meals on the viscosity of jejunal digesta were also examined and correlated to changes in glucose absorption. Four growing pigs were each given either a low-fat semi-purified diet (control) or the same diet supplemented with a
... nted with a high-molecularweight par gum at concentrations in the diet of 20 or 40g/kg. Blood samples were removed simultaneously via indwelling catheters from the mesenteric artery and the hepatic portal vein. Samples of jejunal digesta were removed via a T-piece cannula and used immediately for viscosity measurements at 39'. The 'zero-shear' viscosity of each sample was then calculated. Blood-flow measurements were made using an ultrasonic flow probe fitted to the hepatic portal vein. All measurements were made at intervals of 10 or 30 min during a 4 h postprandial period. Meals containing guar gum significantly increased (P < 0.05) the viscosity of jejunal digesta, an effect that was strongly dependent on the concentration of guar gum in the original diet. No significant differences in blood-flow rates were found between the control and guar-containing diets. Both concentrations of guar gum significantly reduced (P < 0.05) glucose absorption and insulin and GIP secretion rates over the 4 h postprandial period. An inverse relationship between the rate of glucose absorption and the 'zero-shear' viscosity of jejunal digesta was found. This study also provides direct evidence for the important role played by the enteroinsular axis in modifying the glycaemic response to a meal containing guar gum.