A Role of Inflammation and Immunity in Essential Hypertension—Modeled and Analyzed Using Petri Nets
International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Recent studies have shown that the innate and adaptive immune system, together with low-grade inflammation, may play an important role in essential hypertension. In this work, to verify the importance of selected factors for the development of essential hypertension, we created a Petri net-based model and analyzed it. The analysis was based mainly on t-invariants, knockouts of selected fragments of the net and its simulations. The blockade of the renin-angiotensin (RAA) system revealed that the
... m revealed that the most significant effect on the emergence of essential hypertension has RAA activation. This blockade affects: (1) the formation of angiotensin II, (2) inflammatory process (by influencing C-reactive protein (CRP)), (3) the initiation of blood coagulation, (4) bradykinin generation via the kallikrein-kinin system, (5) activation of lymphocytes in hypertension, (6) the participation of TNF alpha in the activation of the acute phase response, and (7) activation of NADPH oxidase—a key enzyme of oxidative stress. On the other hand, we found that the blockade of the activation of the RAA system may not eliminate hypertension that can occur due to disturbances associated with the osmotically independent binding of Na in the interstitium. Moreover, we revealed that inflammation alone is not enough to trigger primary hypertension, but it can coexist with it. We believe that our research may contribute to a better understanding of the pathology of hypertension. It can help identify potential subprocesses, which blocking will allow better control of essential hypertension.