Substitution of arginine for Leu444 in the reactive site of heparin cofactor II enhances the rate of thrombin inhibition

V M Derechin, M A Blinder, D M Tollefsen
1990 Journal of Biological Chemistry  
Heparin cofactor II (HCII), a member of the "serpin" family of serine protease inhibitors, is a 65,600-Da plasma glycoprotein that inhibits thrombin and chymotrypsin. The rate of thrombin inhibition is stimulated approximately 1000-fold by heparin or dermatan sulfate. Thrombin and chymotrypsin cleave the Leu444-Ser445 bond (designated P1-P'1) in the reactive site of HCII, forming a stable equimolar complex in which the protease is inactive. In this study, we have determined the effects of
more » ... he effects of substituting an arginine for Leu444 in recombinant HCII (rHCII). The rHCII was expressed in Escherichia coli and partially purified by heparin-Sepharose chromatography. Apparent second-order rate constants (k2) for inhibition of thrombin, coagulation factor Xa, kallikrein, plasmin, and chymotrypsin by rHCII were determined using appropriate chromogenic substrates. In the absence of a glycosaminoglycan, rHCII(Leu444----Arg) inhibited thrombin at a 98-fold higher rate (k2 = 6.2 x 10(6) M-1 min-1) than native rHCII (k2 = 6.3 x 10(4) M-1 min-1). Dermatan sulfate accelerated thrombin inhibition by both forms of rHCII, but the maximum rate constant in the presence of dermatan sulfate was only 2-fold higher for rHCII(Leu444----Arg) (k2 = 5.3 x 10(8) M-1 min-1) than for native rHCII (k2 = 2.2 x 10(8) M-1 min-1). Heparin was less effective than dermatan sulfate in stimulating both forms of rHCII. Factor Xa, kallikrein, and plasmin were inhibited more rapidly and chymotrypsin more slowly by rHCII(Leu444----Arg) than by native rHCII. These effects are qualitatively similar to those observed with the natural mutant alpha 1-antitrypsin Pittsburgh (Met358----Arg at the P1 position) and strengthen the hypothesis that the P1 residue is a major determinant of protease specificity in the serpins. Furthermore, the rapid rate of inhibition of thrombin by rHCII(Leu444----Arg) in the absence of heparin or dermatan sulfate suggests that this variant may be useful as a therapeutic agent.
pmid:2138609 fatcat:k4nkavxnnrdhxjr6a5hsvuxwle