Identifying of Dominant Factor Cause of Building Vulnerability in The Earthquake Prone Area, West Sumatra Province

Jurnal Ilmiah, Semesta Teknika
2014 unpublished
West Sumatra is one of the province in Indonesia owning high earthquake risk. Disaster data in last one decade show the existence of occurence of earthquake generating damage of building in gross. This matter indicate that building in West Sumatra susceptance of earthquake. One of the building susceptance is management of construction which disagree with needed conditions, law and regulation goodness which in rough, and also execution of imprecise development, imprecise build, either from
more » ... ng facet and scheme, execution and observation, and also from exploiting facet and treatment. It can make infrastructure and building susceptance of disaster. When disaster happened, construction sector product becoming not function, it will generate disaster victim, or generate big loss, because destruction of other infrastructure or building. Research identify dominant factor is building susceptance represent the part of research of dissertation in the effort to less of building susceptance (mitigation) to earthquake, by :1) sekunder data analysis of building effect of earthquake 2) perception of building characteristic and practices build 3) interview to some construction expert and earthquake. Research location in six sub-province / disaster gristle town that is; Padang city, Padang Panjang city, sub province of South Pesisir, sub province of Tanah Datar, sub province of Pariaman and west Pasaman. Research Object at building with floor lower and confined of un-confined masonry. To know potency cause of susceptance by triangulation and sintesis among the data, fact and opinion of expert. Result of research indicate that there are 23,6 % building residing in less condition or did not maintained. To be evaluated from building form, there are 11,1% less up to standard building hold up earthquake that is having regularity of vertical form and horizontal. Pursuant to characteristic usage of brick wall with building structure there are 40,8 % having structure system susceptance of earthquake that is using inappropriate practical log and column. PENDAHULUAN Menurut Coburn dan Spence (1992), kerentanan didefinisikan "as the degree of loss to a given element at risk resulting from a given level of hazard". Kerentanan bangunan merupakan fungsi kinerja struktur bangunan dalam merespon gempa, yaitu semakin tinggi level kegempaannya, maka semakin berat kinerja struktur untuk mengurangi dampak kerusakannya. Standar perencanaan ketahanan gempa untuk struktur bangunan gedung (SNI 03-1726-2002), mensyaratkan kriteria kinerja struktur terhadap gempa: a. Akibat gempa ringan, struktur bangunan tidak boleh mengalami kerusakan baik pada elemen strukturnya maupun pada elemen non struktural. b. Akibat gempa sedang, elemen struktural bangunan tidak boleh rusak tetapi elemen non strukturnya boleh mengalami kerusakan ringan, namun struktur bangunan masih dapat dipergunakan. c. Akibat gempa besar, baik elemen struktural maupun elemen nonstruktural akan mengalami kerusakan, tetapi struktur bangunan tidak boleh runtuh.