Select Statutes, Cases, and Documents to Illustrate English Constitutional History, 1660–1832, with a Supplement from 1832–1894. Edited by C. Grant Robertson, M.A. (London: Methuen and Company. 1904. Pp. xviii, 452.)
American Historical Review
friars and with Archbishop Serrano, who himself was to make the first downright test of the friars' claim to absolute independence of action in spiritual matters. Volume XX, in two-thirds of its documents, deals in one way or another with these same controversies. As between Fajardo and the friars, it was a dispute over the friars' tendency to intervene in secular matters or to assume powers which would in some degree nullify secular authority. As between the archbishop and the religious
... he religious orders, it was the first test of the claim of the latter to exemption from the jurisdiction of the ordinary. This is but lightly rouched upon in volume XX, for it came to a head as the period covered by this volume closed, and is ventilated in a succeeding volume. But the royal decree of 1622, herein reproduced, inferentially gave the archbishop authority to assume a more vigorous attitude in maintaining his prerogative than he did in fact assume. When he yielded, if only for a reference to Spain of the matters in controversy, there was virtually lost for all the future years of Spanish rule in the Philippines the right of the ordinary to control the appointments to benefices, though the right of episcopal visitation of the parishes, not sufficiently asserted under Serrano, and thereby postponed for over a century and a half, was afterward to be established toward the end of the eighteenth century. Incidentally, Serrano's memorial of 1622 contains considerable valuable information regarding the state of Philippine missions at that time. The contests between the discalced members of the Franciscans and the less rigid "Observants" of the same order is also somewhat ventilated. More Jesuit letters and accounts of the tragic events connected with Fajardo's slaying of his faithless wife make up this volume, with some documents of value regarding the Spanish expeditions of 1624 into the country of the Igorrotes in Benguet. As was so generally the case in later years, they only touched the borders of the head-hunters' country, bringing back exaggerated reports of the difficulties of the undertaking, of the savagery of the people, and of the mineral prospects-the latter report, in this case, being pessimisti~.