An integrative framework for cross‐cultural consumer behavior

David Luna, Susan Forquer Gupta
2001 International Marketing Review  
The world economy is becoming increasingly cross-cultural. During the next decades, as marketers enter new international markets, an understanding of how culture influences consumer behavior will be crucial for both managers and consumer researchers. This article presents a framework that integrates and reinterprets current research in cross-cultural consumer behavior. The framework also serves to identify areas that need further research and can be used as a template for marketers seeking to
more » ... keters seeking to understand their foreign consumers. The article also attempts to integrate from an applied perspective two distinct traditions in the study of culture and consumer behavior: the anthropological approach and the cross-cultural psychology tradition. The research register for this journal is available at The term ritual refers to a type of expressive, symbolic activity constructed of multiple behaviors that occur in a fixed, episodic sequence, and that tend to be repeated over time. Ritual behavior is dramatically scripted and acted out and is performed with formality, seriousness, and inner intensity. McCracken (1988, p. 84) adds that a ritual is"a social action devoted to the manipulation of the cultural meaning for purposes of collective and individual communication and categorization. Ritual is an opportunity to affirm, evoke, assign, or revise the conventional symbols and meanings of the cultural order". While Rook's (1985) definition focuses on the form that rituals take, McCracken's emphasizes the goal of ritual behavior.
doi:10.1108/02651330110381998 fatcat:fa25q22f7rfe5ibw5u2zl6gnga