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Objective: Morphine and its derivatives are well-known for their strong analgesic effects in medicine. However, their medical long-term administration is severely restricted because of tolerance and dependence. Morphine fails to induce endocytosis of Mu opioid receptors whereas other encephalin analogues such as DAMGO induce rapid endocytosis of these receptors. Repeated use of opioid drugs alters gene expressions. In current study, we analyze the effects of long-term opioid treatment on Dnm1Lfatcat:k4nkqumiirezzf4d2ju7cwug4a