Oxidative Stress Underlies the Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Internalization and Degradation of AMPA Receptors

Lindsay M. Achzet, Clara J. Davison, Moira Shea, Isabella Sturgeon, Darrell A. Jackson
2021 International Journal of Molecular Sciences  
Stroke is the fifth leading cause of death annually in the United States. Ischemic stroke occurs when a blood vessel supplying the brain is occluded. The hippocampus is particularly susceptible to AMPA receptor-mediated delayed neuronal death as a result of ischemic/reperfusion injury. AMPA receptors composed of a GluA2 subunit are impermeable to calcium due to a post-transcriptional modification in the channel pore of the GluA2 subunit. GluA2 undergoes internalization and is subsequently
more » ... ed following ischemia/reperfusion. The subsequent increase in the expression of GluA2-lacking, Ca2+-permeable AMPARs results in excitotoxicity and eventually delayed neuronal death. Following ischemia/reperfusion, there is increased production of superoxide radicals. This study describes how the internalization and degradation of GluA1 and GluA2 AMPAR subunits following ischemia/reperfusion is mediated through an oxidative stress signaling cascade. U251-MG cells were transiently transfected with fluorescently tagged GluA1 and GluA2, and different Rab proteins to observe AMPAR endocytic trafficking following oxygen glucose-deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R), an in vitro model for ischemia/reperfusion. Pretreatment with Mn(III)tetrakis(1-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphyrin (MnTMPyP), a superoxide dismutase mimetic, ameliorated the OGD/R-induced, but not agonist-induced, internalization and degradation of GluA1 and GluA2 AMPAR subunits. Specifically, MnTMPyP prevented the increased colocalization of GluA1 and GluA2 with Rab5, an early endosomal marker, and with Rab7, a late endosomal marker, but did not affect the colocalization of GluA1 with Rab11, a marker for recycling endosomes. These data indicate that oxidative stress may play a vital role in AMPAR-mediated cell death following ischemic/reperfusion injury.
doi:10.3390/ijms22020717 pmid:33450848 fatcat:vupfdg2oznefnb4lolz2h4xtfe