Oxidative Stress Underlies the Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Internalization and Degradation of AMPA Receptors
International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Stroke is the fifth leading cause of death annually in the United States. Ischemic stroke occurs when a blood vessel supplying the brain is occluded. The hippocampus is particularly susceptible to AMPA receptor-mediated delayed neuronal death as a result of ischemic/reperfusion injury. AMPA receptors composed of a GluA2 subunit are impermeable to calcium due to a post-transcriptional modification in the channel pore of the GluA2 subunit. GluA2 undergoes internalization and is subsequently
... ed following ischemia/reperfusion. The subsequent increase in the expression of GluA2-lacking, Ca2+-permeable AMPARs results in excitotoxicity and eventually delayed neuronal death. Following ischemia/reperfusion, there is increased production of superoxide radicals. This study describes how the internalization and degradation of GluA1 and GluA2 AMPAR subunits following ischemia/reperfusion is mediated through an oxidative stress signaling cascade. U251-MG cells were transiently transfected with fluorescently tagged GluA1 and GluA2, and different Rab proteins to observe AMPAR endocytic trafficking following oxygen glucose-deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R), an in vitro model for ischemia/reperfusion. Pretreatment with Mn(III)tetrakis(1-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphyrin (MnTMPyP), a superoxide dismutase mimetic, ameliorated the OGD/R-induced, but not agonist-induced, internalization and degradation of GluA1 and GluA2 AMPAR subunits. Specifically, MnTMPyP prevented the increased colocalization of GluA1 and GluA2 with Rab5, an early endosomal marker, and with Rab7, a late endosomal marker, but did not affect the colocalization of GluA1 with Rab11, a marker for recycling endosomes. These data indicate that oxidative stress may play a vital role in AMPAR-mediated cell death following ischemic/reperfusion injury.