Tradycyjny instytucjonalizm i jego znaczenie dla nauk politycznych

Kamil Minkner
2015 Historia i Polityka  
A b s t r a c t : The paper presents academic achievements of traditional institutionalism, the first scientific approach in political science, which was developed since the second part of the 19 th century in USA, Great Britain, Germany and France. The author argues that this orientation had a creative influence on the progress of the discipline, however this impact is not appreciated by contemporary studies in the field of political science and political theory where limited understanding of
more » ... d understanding of the old institutionalism is promoted. The revision of this state of affairs has shown that, apart from the analysis of formal structures and institutions of state power, the traditionalists also have studied political parties (A.L. Lowell), interest groups (T. Eschenburg), public opinion (J. Bryce) and informal sociopolitical phenomena such as influence (C.J. Friedrich). Additionally, the first institutionalists formed the foundations for methodological self-consciousness of young political science and forged concepts that have been verified by subsequent generations of political scientists. They also conducted the first comparative studies of political systems (H. Finer, C.J. Friedrich). Many of these scholars went beyond pure theory by linking their reflections with planning and reforming political institutions. In this context, the author discusses research on relations between politics and administration (F.J. Goodnow), considerations on demonopolization of power (H.J. Laski) and refers to the debate on efficiency of different branches of government (e.g. in Poland after passing the March Constitution of 1921). K e y w or d s : traditional (old) institutionalism, history of political science, formal-legal orientation, political science theories S ł o w a k lu c z o w e : tradycyjny (stary) instytucjonalizm, historia politologii (nauk politycznych), orientacja formalno-prawna, teorie politologiczne Badacze są zazwyczaj zgodni, iż początek nauk politycznych w drugiej połowie XIX wieku wiąże się z badaniem instytucji władzy państwowej. Uznaje się powszechnie, iż dla tradycyjnych instytucjonalistów polityka miała przede wszystkim charakter wysoce zorganizowany oznaczając sferę działania organów władzy państwowej. Przeważa opinia, że badacze skupiali się na formalnych regułach i organizacjach rządu, a nie na nieformalnych i rutynowych ograniczeniach rządze-H i s t o r i a i P o l i t y k a Nr 13 (20)/2015, s s. 9 -29 ISSN 1899 -516 0 w w w.h ip.u m k .pl
doi:10.12775/hip.2015.001 fatcat:umvxubflzrbidmqrnuiv6kferi