Genome-wide SNP genotyping of DNA pools identifies untapped landraces and genomic regions that could enrich the maize breeding pool
Maize landraces preserved in genebanks have a large genetic diversity that is still poorly characterized and underexploited in modern breeding programs. Here, we genotyped DNA pools from 156 American and European landraces with a 50K SNP Illumina array to study the effect of both human selection and environmental adaptation on the genome-wide diversity of maize landraces. Genomic diversity of landraces varied strongly in different parts of the genome and with geographic origin. We detected
... n. We detected selective footprints between landraces of different geographic origin in genes involved in the starch pathway (Su1, Waxy1), flowering time (Zcn8, Vgt3, ZmCCT9) and tolerance to abiotic and biotic stress (ZmASR, NAC and dkg genes). Landrace diversity was compared to that of (i) 327 inbred lines representing American and European diversity (″CK lines″) and (ii) 103 new lines derived directly from landraces (″DH-SSD lines″). We observed limited diversity loss or selective sweep between landraces and CK lines, except in peri-centromeric regions. However, analysis of modified Roger′s distance between landraces and the CK lines showed that most landraces were not closely related to CK lines. Assignment of CK lines to landraces using supervised analysis showed that only a few landraces, such as Reid′s Yellow Dent, Lancaster Surecrop and Lacaune, strongly contributed to modern European and American breeding pools. Haplotype diversity of CK lines was more enriched by DH-SSD lines that derived from the landraces with no related lines and the lowest contribution to CK lines. Our approach opens an avenue for the identification of promising landraces for pre-breeding.