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The ability to fabricate membranes with arrays of apertures only a few nanometers in diameter are important to many fields of research, including ion beam lithography 1 , DNA sequencing 2 , single ion implantations 3 , and single molecule studies. Because even the state-of-the-art lithography tools are limited in their ability to produce nanoscale features, alternative methods of fabricating single pores of nanometer scale have been developed, using ion-beam sculpting 2 and focused-ionbeamdoi:10.2172/932785 fatcat:ifc4kcfa5zhpzjkqfezpdgjzke