Antiproliferative Effects of Citrus Limonoids Against Human Neuroblastoma and Colonic Adenocarcinoma Cells

Shibu M. Poulose, Edward D. Harris, Bhimanagouda S. Patil
2006 Nutrition and Cancer  
Limonoids, a family of triterpenoids with putative anticancer properties, occur in fruits as glucosides and aglycones. Both highly purified forms were isolated from seeds and molasses of citrus fruits and tested for toxic effects against two human cancer cell lines, SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma and Caco-2 colonic adenocarcinoma, and a noncancerous mammalian epithelial Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Viability, as quantified by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium reduction and light
more » ... microscopy, was shortened significantly (P <0.001) in cancer cells exposed to aglycones, viz., limonin, nomilin, obacunone, and deacetylnomilin. SH-SY5Y cells were more sensitive than Caco-2 cells to the limonoids, whereas noncancerous CHO cells showed hardly any change in cell numbers or cell morphology. Aglycone toxicity was dose dependent, but below the killing potential of glucosides. This observation correlated with a slower rate of induction of caspase 3/7 activity by aglycones. A flow cytometric analysis of SH-SY5Y cells treated with glucosides and aglycones showed an increased ploidy, which is consistent with enhancing chromosomal abnormalities. The results confirm that limonoids exert a strong multifaceted lethal action against cancer cells, but are relatively ineffective against CHO cells. Of the two, metabolites derived from glucosides are the more likely progenitors of an apoptosis response in situ.
doi:10.1207/s15327914nc5601_14 pmid:17176224 fatcat:xyk75z5nmney3lkal4pbyh6eri