Terapia combinada frente a la encefalopatía hipóxico-isquémica neonatal

M. Cánovas-Ahedo, D. Alonso-Alconada
2019 Anales de Pediatría  
Neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy due to the lack of oxygen at birth can have severe neurological consequences, such as cerebral palsy, or even the death of the asphyxiated newborn. Hypothermia is currently the only therapy included in intensive care neonatal units. This shows a clinical benefit in neonates suffering from hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy, mainly because of its ability to decrease the accumulation of excitatory amino acids and its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and
more » ... tioxidant, and anti-apoptotic effects. However, hypothermia is not effective in half of the cases, making it necessary to search for new, or to optimize current therapies, with the aim on reducing asphyxia-derived neurological consequences, either as single treatments or in combination with cooling. Within current potential therapies, melatonin, allopurinol, and erythropoietin stand out among the others, with clinical trials on the way. While, stem cells, N-acetylcysteine and noble gases have obtained promising pre-clinical results. Melatonin produces a powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect, acting as free radical scavenger and regulating pro-inflammatory mediators. Through the inhibition of xanthine oxidase, allopurinol can decrease oxidative stress. Erythropoietin has cell death and neurogenesis as its main therapeutic targets. Keeping in mind the whole scenario of current therapies, management of neonates suffering from neonatal asphyxia could rely on the combination of one or some of these treatments, together with therapeutic hypothermia.
doi:10.1016/j.anpedi.2019.04.007 pmid:31109785 fatcat:rz23k23f6nb43i7xngu6xudihy