Theory on Another Type of Temperature-Independent Superconductivity Based on Circuit Approaches with High Critical Current Density
This paper proposes a method to generate a new type of superconductivity that is temperature independent with a high critical current density. This study is significant because the method does not require refrigeration, specific setups, or specific substances. That is, the method for generating the superconductivity is very simple. Many conventional superconductor studies have not yet reached this point. Moreover, compared with our previously developed superconductivity (PNS) [1-3], the
... [1-3], the critical currents in this study are much larger, which is important for practical applications. In the theoretical approaches, even though the mechanism of pairing, and the Bose–Einstein condensation are the same in this study as in PNS, the present paper emphasizes the mechanism of the Meissner effect in addition to formulating the critical current density. Further, we establish a simulation method with an equivalent circuit that reveals the superconductivity properties in terms of the transport current and the electromagnetic characteristics.The principles of the presented system are as follows:First a voltage source, a current source and a load are connected in series.Then, the voltage of the voltage source is adjusted to balance the voltage of the load.Under this condition, the balance of the two voltages provides a zero voltage between the taps of the current source and the generated current from the voltage source becomes zero because of the internal infinite resistance of the current source.As a result, the electric power generated by the two sources is zero, and therefore, the load cannot generate Joule heating because of energy conservation.However, the current from the current source (not the voltage source) is not zero; therefore, we can predict that the resistance of the load must be zero.A summary of our theory and numerical calculations is as follows. First, the strong combination of a two-electron pair is demonstrated. Then, given that two electrons combine extremely strongly because of the spin magnetic attractive force, analytical calculations of the center-of-mass motion of the Hamiltonian of the pair eventually result in a macroscopic wave function. From this macroscopic wave function, we derive a London equation using the concept of an internal toroid. The key point is that, when a sample exhibits a Meissner effect, it should release the additional energy from the internal magnetic field as a discharge current, which involves a negative voltage. Based on the inductance of this toroid, an equivalent circuit is produced. Using this circuit, we simulate this phenomenon, which results in the generation of a negative voltage and evidence of the Meissner effect, in addition to zero voltages and non-zero currents for the sample.