Reconfigurable CMOS Oscillator Based on Multifrequency AlN Contour-Mode MEMS Resonators
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
This paper reports on the first demonstration of a reconfigurable complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) oscillator based on microelectromechanical system (MEMS) resonators operating at four different frequencies (268, 483, 690, and 785 MHz). A bank of multifrequency switchable AlN contour-mode MEMS resonators was connected to a single CMOS oscillator circuit that can be configured to selectively operate in four different states with distinct oscillation frequencies. The phase noise
... The phase noise (PN) of the reconfigurable oscillator was measured for each of the four different frequencies of operation, showing values between −94 and −70 dBc/Hz at a 1-kHz offset and PN floor values as low as −165 dBc/Hz at a 1-MHz offset. Jitter values as low as a 114-fs root mean square (integrated 12 kHz-20 MHz) and switching times as fast as 20 μs were measured. This first prototype represents a miniaturized solution (30 times smaller) over commercially available voltage-controlled surface-acoustic-wave oscillators and potentially has the advantage of generating multiple stable frequencies without the need of cumbersome and power-consuming phase-locked-loop circuits. Index Terms-AlN contour-mode resonator (CMR), complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)/ microelectromechanical-system (MEMS) oscillator, microelectromechanical systems (MEMSs), piezoelectric resonator, reconfigurable oscillator. Matteo Rinaldi (S'08-M'11) received the first-level (B.S.) and second-level (M.Sc.) Laurea degrees in electronic engineering (with honors) from the University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy, in 2004 and 2007, respectively, and the Ph.D. degree from the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, in 2010. He is currently a Postdoctoral Researcher with the Department of Electrical and Systems Engineering, University of Pennsylvania. He has more than 15 referred publications in the aforementioned research areas and also holds two device patent applications in the field of micro/nano mechanical resonant sensors. His research interests primarily include micro/nano electromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS) devices, micro/nano AlN piezoelectric gravimetric sensors for multiple volatile organic compound detection, nanosensitive layers for enhanced gas-vapor adsorption, super-high-frequency nanoelectromechanical resonators for radiofrequency and sensing applications, MEMS-/NEMS-based oscillator circuits, and MEMS-IC integration and codesign. Dr.