Artisans in the Social-Class Structure of the Cities of the North Caucasus
In the Russian Empire of XIX century people were concentrating in cities, forming urban lifestyle and behavior and thereby creating peculiar social structure with different traditional and modern features. In the current article the authors consider features of economical and social life of the North Caucasus citizens on the example of artisans. Legal framework, regulatory documents, factors and aspects of establishing the artisans' government are analyzed. The analysis of documents of
... cuments of Artisans' Government in Vladikavkaz demonstrates that all of the significant positions were occupied by philistines, who also acted as organizers of new enterprises. The criteria of selection (belonging to the estate, confessions, nationalities, the existence of a passport or residence permit, reliability, literacy, etc.) of the new members of Government and its management, including the position of foremen were identified during the research of the related archives and other sources. The post-reform modernization in general promoted the emergence of new forms of social and corporate associations, which increased civil activity and initiative. However, during the research, the authors come to the conclusion that city governments in the North Caucasus have never became institutions of civil society, but have only acquired certain features of public institutions.