XVIII.—Parasites of the Spongida
Annals and Magazine of Natural History
Ix 1871 (tAnnals,' vol. viii. p. 330) I stated that I hoped soon to communicate an "illustrated. paper, on the parasites of sponges ;" and now~ after having examined all the specimens of the latter in the collections of the British 1V[useum together with those belonging to the late Dr. Bowerbank, and with my own experience of the living sponges here (Budleigh-Salterton), I propose to notice those parasites which have come under my observation and of which I possess specimens, being well aware
... being well aware that there must be many more which have not been discovered, or~ if discovered, have not been made public. For illustrations I prefer figures which combine that of the sponge with that of the parasite; and therefore reference will be made to these whenever possible, while the rest hardly require any; so that the only illustration that I shall insert will be one of Spoag~ophaga communis which will be given in a woodcut opposite the descnptmn. CRUSTACEANS. It seems not uncommon for small Amphipod Crustaceans about 1-12th inch long to nestle in the surface of some sponges~ where they make little oval depressions to lie in, more or less bent upon themselves, which depressions, in the absence of the crustaceans, may sometimes be taken for vents. This was first noticed in S~berites antarcticus, MS. (a branched Suberite of a grey colour, with large and almost spherical head to its pin-like spicules I dredged up by Sir J. Ross in 300 fathoms in 77½ ° south latitude), and the crustacean kindly described and illustrated by the Rev. R. R. Stebbing, M.A., under the provisionaI name of Dexamine antarctica (' Anrmls,' 1875, vol. xv. p. 184, pl. xv. fig. 1, &c. ). Similar depressions with a smaller crustacean of a like form were afterwards observed on the surface of a large mouse-coloured, areniferous, estuarian variety of Suberites domuncula, Nard% = Halichondria suberea, Jdhnston~ on a Bucclnum containing a Paqurus, probably from the Firth of Forth, Scotland, and, lastly, though of larger size, on a living specimen of Hallchondria incrustans from this place (Budleigh-Satterton). Crustaceans are commonly found in the cloaca and halfway through its aperture in Grantia cillata and G. compressa, especially towards tile maturity of the gastrula, which, being free from spicules and rich in nutriment, they devour greedily~ not refusing portions of the sponge itself; so that, in gathering Downloaded by [University of Toronto Libraries] at 02:46 30 December 2014 158 Mr. H. J. Carter on Parasites of the STo•gida.