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We monitored a population of Carolina Hemlocks in northwestern North Carolina for four years to examine the rate and pattern of decline in response to infestation by Adelges tsugae (Hemlock Woolly Adelgid). Our yearly census of hemlock condition and severity of the adelgid infestation included trees of all sizes. We estimated declines in condition as the portions of the leaf canopy that were lost. Initially, infestation occurred throughout the population but was severe in only a small clusterdoi:10.1656/058.013.s605 fatcat:eavo6anfgnhzlgq47ch7d4qkee