An Afternoon Hummus Snack Affects Diet Quality, Appetite, and Glycemic Control in Healthy Adults

Evan J Reister, Heather J Leidy
2020 Journal of Nutrition  
Background Snacking continues to be a major component in the dietary patterns of most Americans despite conflicting evidence surrounding snacking healthfulness. Low-sugar, highly nutritive snacks, such as hummus, can lead to improvements in diet quality, appetite, and glycemic control. Objectives The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of afternoon snacking on diet quality, appetite, and glycemic control in healthy adults. Methods Thirty-nine adults (age: 26 ± 1 y; BMI: 24.4 ± 0.5
more » ... /m2) randomly completed the following afternoon snack patterns for 6 d/pattern: hummus and pretzels [HUMMUS; 240 kcal; 6 g protein, 31 g carbohydrate (2 g sugar), 11 g fat]; granola bars [BARS; 240 kcal; 4 g protein, 38 g carbohydrate (16 g sugar), 9 g fat]; or no snacking (NO SNACK). On day 7 of each pattern, a standardized breakfast and lunch were provided. The respective snack was provided to participants 3 h after lunch, and appetite, satiety, and mood questionnaires were completed throughout the afternoon. At 3 h postsnack, a standardized dinner was consumed, and an evening snack cooler was provided to be consumed, ad libitum at home, throughout the evening. Lastly, 24 h continuous glucose monitoring was performed. Results HUMMUS reduced subsequent snacking on desserts by ∼20% compared with NO SNACK (P = 0.001) and BARS (P < 0.001). HUMMUS led to greater dietary compensation compared with BARS (122 ± 31% compared with 72 ± 32%, respectively; P < 0.05). HUMMUS reduced indices of appetite (i.e., hunger, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption) by ∼70% compared with NO SNACK (all P < 0.05), whereas BARS did not. Additionally, satiety was ∼30% greater following HUMMUS and BARS compared with NO SNACK (both P < 0.005) with no differences between snacks. Lastly, HUMMUS reduced afternoon blood glucose concentrations by ∼5% compared with BARS (P < 0.05). Conclusions Acute consumption of a low-sugar, afternoon hummus snack improved diet quality and selected indices of appetite, satiety, and glycemic control in healthy adults. Long-term trials assessing the effects of hummus snacking on health outcomes are warranted.
doi:10.1093/jn/nxaa139 pmid:32488233 fatcat:ke7kc2au4je33afa3lm5vsxqju