Geo-based inter-domain routing (GIDR) protocol for MANETs

Biao Zhou, Abhishek Tiwari, Konglin Zhu, You Lu, Mario Gerla, Anurag Ganguli, Bao-hong Shen, David Krzysiak
2009 MILCOM 2009 - 2009 IEEE Military Communications Conference  
Inter-domain routing for MANETs (Mobile Ad Hoc Networks) draws increasing attention because of military and vehicular applications. The existing Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is the de facto inter-domain routing protocol for the Internet. But BGP is not applicable to MANETs because the BGP design is based on a static Internet which does not support dynamic discovery of members, and cannot scale to mobile, dynamic topology environments. The proposed geo-based inter-domain routing (GIDR) protocol
more » ... obtains efficient communications among MANETs and achieves scalability in large networks by using geo-routing packet forwarding scheme and clustering technique. The basic structure of GIDR is clusters in each domain. The distributed clustering algorithm elects within each domain a Cluster Head (CH). The cluster head in the subnet acts as local DNS for own cluster and also (redundantly) for neighbor clusters. The cluster head advertises to neighbors and the rest of the network its connectivity, members, and domain information. The advertising protocol plays the role of BG Protocol. Geo-routing is the main packet forwarding scheme in GIDR. Assuming that all nodes are equipped with GPS, greedy forwarding is a straightforward routing scheme and can be easily standardized and implemented in all "coalition" nodes. Moreover, it is inherently scalable and is "address" independent (thus, it works across domain boundaries). If greedy forwarding fails, the packet is "directionally" forwarded to the "most promising" node along the advertised direction, i.e., direction forwarding. The experiments have shown that the proposed inter-domain routing has achieved scalability and robustness to mobility. The simulation results with Airborne Backbone Network, an important application domain in Military, as one of the domains are also presented in the paper. The cluster head advertises to neighbors and the rest of the network its connectivity, members, and domain information. The advertising protocol plays the role of BG Protocol. Geo-routing is the main packet forwarding scheme in GIDR. Assuming that all nodes are equipped with GPS, greedy forwarding is a straightforward routing scheme, which forwards the packet to the neighbor yielding the most progress towards the destination. Greedy forwarding can be easily standardized and implemented in all "coalition" nodes. Moreover, it is inherently scalable and is "address" independent (thus, it works across domain boundaries). The most delicate aspect of conventional Geo-Routing (and a damper to interoperability) is the circumvention of obstacles and "holes" using perimeter routing (a.k.a. face routing) methods. Perimeter routing greatly degrades performance. Moreover, no clear prevailing perimeter routing standard exists that will work well in all situations. This problem is bypassed by the use of directional forwarding in GIDR. If greedy forwarding fails, the GIDR packet is "directionally" forwarded to the "most promising" node along the advertised direction. The proposed GIDR protocol has the following key characteristics and innovations: 1) Ability to handle frequent network topology changes by exploiting group affinity during cluster formation; 2) Dynamic discovery and dynamic split/merge; 3) Smaller routing table size and lower routing update frequency by the Geo-routing scheme (i.e., Greedy Forwarding + Direction Forwarding); 4) Member Digest implementation with Bloom Filter, enhancing GIDR scalability; 5) each MANET in GIDR preserves its legacy routing scheme, yet membership can evolve in time (split/expand/merge); and 6) Scalable to size and robust to mobility. The rest of the paper is organized in the following way. The related work is briefly reviewed in section II. We describe the protocol design on GIDR in details in section III. Intensive performance evaluations are presented in section IV and we conclude in section VI. 978-1-4244-5239-2/09/$26.00 ©2009 IEEE
doi:10.1109/milcom.2009.5379890 fatcat:3fgesocpwffqff44xzsljipr5e