Aminoglycoside Antibiotics Perturb Physiologically Important MicroRNA Contributing To Drug Toxicity [article]

Gopal Jayaraj, Soundhar Ramasamy, Debojit Bose, Hemant Suryawanshi, Mukesh Lalwani, Sridhar Sivasubbu, Souvik Maiti
2017 bioRxiv   pre-print
miRNAs are key non-protein coding regulators of gene expression in various pathophysiological conditions. Targeting miRNA with small molecules offer an unconventional approach, where clinically active compounds with RNA binding activity can be tested for their ability to modulate miRNA levels and thus for drug repositioning. Aminoglycoside antibiotics are highly effective microbicidal RNA binding molecules that bind to prokaryotic rRNA secondary structures. Here, we report that specific subsets
more » ... at specific subsets of miRNA can be modulated by aminoglycosides. However, ototoxicity (cochlear and vestibular) and nephrotoxicity of multiple origins resulting from prolonged use are a well-known disadvantage of aminoglycosides. Mature non-coding RNAs and their precursors can present off-target sites, by forming secondary structures that resemble ribosomal RNA, thus providing an additional molecular basis for the toxicity of aminoglycosides. Using in vitro, in cellulae and physiological responses, we provide evidence for the direct functional perturbation of the miR-96 cluster leading to selective cell death in neuromasts - the zebrafish equivalent of cochlear hair cells - by Streptomycin, a prototype aminoglycoside antibiotic, thus contributing to the observed ototoxicity. Our observations, collectively underscore the importance of re-evaluating RNA binding drugs for their off-targeting effects in the context of miRNA and other functional non-coding RNA.
doi:10.1101/137935 fatcat:i2grfh7ornhyvp5i2wli6wbm64