Stacked Image Sensor With Green- and Red-Sensitive Organic Photoconductive Films Applying Zinc Oxide Thin-Film Transistors to a Signal Readout Circuit
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Broadcast Technology no.40, Spring 2010 NHK STRL C 23 W e have been studying a new type of image sensor composed of stacked organic photoconductive films that are sensitive to only one of the primary colors. A vertically stacked image sensor composed of green (G)-and red (R)-sensitive organic photoconductive films, each having a thin-film transistor (TFT) that uses a transparent zinc oxide (ZnO) channel to read out a signal generated in the organic film, was fabricated. The effective number of
... ffective number of pixels of the ZnO-TFT circuits was 1410 (47 30), and their pitch was 600 m. The current on/off ratio and turn-on voltage of the ZnO-TFT were over 100,000 and 1.5 V, respectively. The G-and R-sensitive organic photoconductive films showed excellent wavelength selectivity: the peak wavelength of the G-sensitive film was 540 nm, and that of the R-sensitive one was 700 nm. A color image with a resolution corresponding to the number of pixels was obtained by a shooting experiment with the fabricated image sensor, which clearly demonstrated color separation in the depth direction of the image sensor, using a stacked structure of wavelengthselective organic films with ZnO-TFT readout circuits. T his paper describes a method of producing scenes for TV programs, using "dynamic 3D human models". Dynamic 3D human models are 3D models generated from images shot by multiple cameras surrounding an actor for each frame using 3D-reconstruction and texture-mapping techniques. They can provide highly realistic images as well as natural motions without having to use a motion-capture system. In addition, they allow production to be more flexible, such as enabling the positions of models to be changed or multiplying the number that are used. Dynamic 3D human models are therefore suitable for producing crowd scenes. Although techniques of 3D reconstruction and texture mapping have been discussed and several applications have been proposed, they have not been widely introduced into TV or movie production, because of the huge amounts of data and insufficient textural quality. By establishing an efficient production flow with recent powerful computers and 24 HD cameras, the authors succeeded in producing crowd scenes with sufficient quality for a TV program, which was aired in December 2009. The scenes involving 1,000 soldiers can be produced by shooting several sequences with two actors. The production flow that was established is described as well as scenes that were produced using dynamic 3D human models for a drama.