Technical Issues on Cognitive Radio-Based Internet of Things Systems: A Survey

Faroq A. Awin, Yasser M. Alginahi, Esam Abdel-Raheem, Kemal Tepe
2019 IEEE Access  
Cognitive radio (CR)-based Internet of Things (IoT) system is an effective step toward a world of smart technology. Many frameworks have been proposed to build CR-based IoT systems. The CR-based IoT frameworks are the key points on which this survey focuses. Efficient spectrum sensing and sharing are the main functional components of the CR-based IoT. Reviews of recent SS and sharing approaches are presented in this survey. This survey classifies the SS and sharing approaches and discusses the
more » ... erits and limitations of those approaches. Moreover, this survey discusses the design factors of the CR-based IoT and the criteria by which the proper SS and access approaches are selected. Furthermore, the survey explores the integration of newly emerging technologies with the CR-based IoT systems. Finally, the survey highlights some emerging challenges and concludes with suggesting future research directions and open issues. INDEX TERMS Cognitive radio, spectrum sensing, IoT, MAC, spectrum accessing, spectrum sharing, spectrum management, security, data privacy, blockchain, machine learning. The associate editor coordinating the review of this manuscript and approving it for publication was Hayder Al-Hraishawi. spectrum sharing, interference among devices, etc. Recently, the adaptation of Cognitive Radio Networks (CRNs) in IoT has shown equivalent or better performance than currently used networks such as Wi-Fi, WiMAX, Bluetooth, etc. Hence, opportunistic approaches for Radio Frequency (RF) spectrum control and management to optimize the scare spectrum resources is emerging as one of the main challenges. With the recent unprecedented increase of wireless communication systems, applications and their users limits spectrum resources and make connectivity between their interconnected objects a crucial task. Therefore, the demands for smart devices that can manage and configure its transmission parameters based on the spectrum availability in spatio-temporal dimensions are remarkably increased. Cognitive Radio (CR) is the best candidate technology; it is defined as an adaptive, intelligent radio and network technology that automatically detects available channels in a wireless spectrum and changes transmission parameters enabling more communications to run concurrently and also improves radio operating behavior [3] . The benefits of CR systems would be to [4]: • relieve spectrum scarcity by broadcasting on unused spectrum and avoiding interference with primary licensee, VOLUME 7, 2019 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. For more information, see
doi:10.1109/access.2019.2929915 fatcat:orlccnbvpffqbkg45dtdl6iyau