Space, Time and Machines

Arto Annila
2012 International Journal of Theoretical and Mathematical Physics  
The 2nd law of thermodynamics is used to shed light on present-day puzzles in cosmology. The universal law, given as an equation of motion, describes diverse systems when consuming free energy via various mechanisms to attain stationary states in their respective surroundings. Expansion of the Universe, galactic rotation and lensing as well as clustering of red-shifted spectral lines are found as natural consequences of the maximal energy dispersal that satisfies the conservation of energy, in
more » ... tion of energy, in the forms of kinetic, potential and dissipation. The Universe in its entirety is pictured as a giant Riemann resonator in evolution via step-by-step spontaneous breaking of one stationary-state symmetry to another to diminish energy density differences relative to its zero-density "surroundings". The continuum equation of evolution is proven equivalent to the Navier-Stokes equation. The ubiquitous flow equation has no solution because the forces and flows are inseparable when the dissipative process has three or more degrees of freedom. Since an evolving system is without a norm, there is no unitary transformation to solve the characteristic equation, but detailed trajectories remain inherently intractable. Conversely, stationary-state trajectories can be solved.
doi:10.5923/j.ijtmp.20120203.01 fatcat:6hfpozcih5ejbkrsizxmcmt3xm