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RESILIENCE OF CONTENTIOUS MOVEMENTS UNDER REPRESSION: THE ROLE OF BYSTANDER PROTECTION AND DISRUPTION
a country with a long history of brutal military dictatorships, was for decades a hostile environment for mass contention. Nonetheless, large-scale protests, as part of the Burmese urban pro-democracy movement, still emerged through the years. So what accounts for the perseverance of a non-violent movement in a repressive regime? In this dissertation, I argue for the role of an important yet oftneglected factor: civilian bystanders and observers of opposition activism. I theorize that bystanderdoi:10.7298/9mx5-n181 fatcat:qx6ojeasrnaqjpq6vdg22owul4