Effect of Irrigation using Diluted Winery Wastewater on Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon in a Sandy Alluvial Soil in the Breede River Valley - Vegetative Growth, Yield and Wine Quality
South African Journal of Enology and Viticulture
The re-use of winery wastewater for irrigation was investigated in a field trial with micro-sprinklerirrigated Cabernet Sauvignon/99Richter in the Breede River Valley region of South Africa. Irrigation with winery wastewater diluted with river water to 100, 250, 500, 1 000, 1 500, 2 000, 2 500 and 3 000 mg/L chemical oxygen demand (COD) was compared to irrigation with river water. Under the prevailing conditions, plant water status did not respond to irrigation using diluted winery wastewater.
... eaf and shoot element contents did not respond consistently to irrigation using diluted winery wastewater. There were no differences in vegetative growth or yield or juice characteristics, with the exception of juice pH. Consequently, water use and water status of the grapevines also were not affected. The results indicate that a summer interception crop may increase the evapotranspiration of vineyards substantially. The irrigation of grapevines using diluted winery wastewater did not have detrimental effects on wine colour and sensory wine characteristics, and the grapevines did not respond to the COD level per se. This indicates that sufficient aeration occurred between irrigations, which allowed organic carbon breakdown. The low salinity and sodicity levels in the diluted winery wastewater could be a further explanation of why the grapevines did not respond to the wastewater irrigation. In heavier soils, regions with lower winter rainfall, situations where the winery wastewater contains more potassium or where no interception crop is cultivated during summer, grapevine responses may be more pronounced.