Associations between female lung cancer risk and sex steroid hormones: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the worldwide epidemiological evidence on endogenous and exogenous sex steroid hormones

Hui Zeng, Zhuoyu Yang, Jiang Li, Yan Wen, Zheng Wu, Yadi Zheng, Yiwen Yu, Yongjie Xu, Shugeng Gao, Fengwei Tan, Ni Li, Qi Xue (+1 others)
2021 BMC Cancer  
Background Published findings suggest sex differences in lung cancer risk and a potential role for sex steroid hormones. Our aim was to perform a meta-analysis to investigate the effects of sex steroid hormone exposure specifically on the risk of lung cancer in women. Methods The PubMed, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and EMBASE databases were searched. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for female lung cancer risk associated with sex steroid hormones were calculated
more » ... verall and by study design, publication year, population, and smoking status. Sensitivity analysis, publication bias, and subgroup analysis were performed. Results Forty-eight studies published between 1987 and 2019 were included in the study with a total of 31,592 female lung cancer cases and 1,416,320 subjects without lung cancer. Overall, higher levels of sex steroid hormones, both endogenous (OR: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.87–0.98) and exogenous (OR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.80–0.93), significantly decreased the risk of female lung cancer by 10% (OR: 0.90, 95% CI: 0.86–0.95). The risk of lung cancer decreased more significantly with a higher level of sex steroid hormones in non-smoking women (OR: 0.88, 95% CI: 0.78–0.99) than in smoking women (OR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.77–1.03), especially in Asia women (OR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.74–0.96). Conclusions Our meta-analysis reveals an association between higher levels of sex steroid hormone exposure and the decreased risk of female lung cancer. Surveillance of sex steroid hormones might be used for identifying populations at high risk for lung cancer, especially among non-smoking women.
doi:10.1186/s12885-021-08437-9 pmid:34112140 fatcat:wslnclix55bqvcyizh2entrot4