Diagnosis and staging of ocular surface squamous neoplasia

Roland Höllhumer, Pamela Michelow, Susan Williams
2020 African Vision and Eye Health  
Aim: The purpose of this article was to review the current staging and diagnostic modalities for OSSN with a focus on less invasive modalities. Method: A literature review was performed for publications on ocular surface neoplasia and diagnostic modalities. Results: Histology is the gold standard for diagnosing OSSN. Cytology has been shown to be a simple, repeatable and minimally invasive diagnostic modality, which also allows for additional testing such as polymerase chain reaction. Anterior
more » ... reaction. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography provides a non-contact method of evaluating the ocular surface, with OSSN showing a thickened hyper-reflective epithelium, abrupt transition zone and demarcation line. Vital dyes are used less commonly with high sensitivity, but lower specificity for OSSN. Finally, confocal microscopy provides en-face images of the ocular surface, with OSSN showing a classic 'starry night' appearance. Conclusion: Histology remains the gold standard for diagnosis; however, with the increasing use of topical therapy for OSSN, there has been an increase in the uptake of less invasive diagnostic modalities.
doi:10.4102/aveh.v79i1.590 fatcat:eqagx3opa5asrgvvwikafciahq