The role of dynamic and diffusion MR imaging in therapeutic response assessment after microwave ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma using LI-RADS v2018 treatment response algorithm

Bahaa Eldin Mahmoud, Amr Abd Elfattah Hassan Gadalla, Shaima Fattouh Elkholy
2021 The Egyptian Journal of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine  
Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is considered as one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Microwave ablation (MWA) is a widely used treatment option having less morbidity and complications as compared with surgery and liver transplantation. MRI is the most widely used modality in the assessment of treatment response after MWA. Currently, LI-RADS v2018 algorithm is considered the cornerstone in daily clinical practice for assessment of the treatment response after
more » ... ent response after locoregional therapy. The aim of the study was to assess the role of dynamic MRI and diffusion imaging in the assessment of treatment response and detection of tumor viability following microwave ablation therapy of HCC according to LI-RADS v2018 treatment response algorithm. Results This retrospective study was performed over 45 HCC lesions underwent MWA as the only therapeutic procedure and followed up by dynamic MRI with diffusion images and then classified according to the LI-RADS treatment response criteria into LR-TR viable and LR-TR nonviable groups. All the malignant lesions found in this study showed arterial phase hyperenhancment (APHE), whether in the early or late arterial phases. Delayed washout was found in all malignant lesions as well. In the diffusion analysis, the mean ADC value for the malignant lesions was 0.900 ± 0.126 × 10-3 mm2/s, while the mean ADC of the treatment-related specific benign parenchymal enhancement was 1.284 ± 0.129 × 10-3 mm2/s with a significant statistical difference in between (P = 0.0001) and a cutoff value of 1.11 × 10-3 mm2/s. Our findings showed that the dynamic MRI has 100% sensitivity, 93.5% specificity, 87.5% PPV, and 100% NPV in the detection of tumoral activity compared with 71.43% sensitivity, 93.55% specificity, 83.33% PPV, and 87.88% NPV for diffusion images. Conclusion LI-RADS 2018 provides a treatment response algorithm superior to the previously used assessment criteria. MRI with dynamic contrast-enhanced technique and diffusion imaging provide a powerful tool in the evaluation of treatment response after microwave ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma using the LI-RADS treatment response criteria and is considered a reliable method in differentiating between the recurrent or residual malignant lesions and the posttreatment benign liver changes.
doi:10.1186/s43055-021-00428-x fatcat:qrycdy3mujfsxjrz74cff6ma4e