Inhibition of cell membrane ingression at the division site by cell wall in fission yeast
Eukaryotic cells assemble an actomyosin ring during cytokinesis to function as a force-generating machine to drive membrane invagination, and to counteract the intracellular pressure and the cell surface tension. It is unclear whether additional factors such as the extracellular matrix (cell wall in yeasts and fungi) affect the actomyosin ring contraction. While studying the fission yeast S. pombe β-glucan synthase mutant cps1-191, which is defective in division septum synthesis and actomyosin
... sis and actomyosin ring contraction, we found that significantly weakening of the extracellular glycan matrix caused the spheroplasts to divide at the non-permissive condition. This division was dependent on a functional actomyosin ring and vesicular trafficking, but independent of normal septum synthesis. cps1-191 cells with weakened extracellular glycan matrix divide non-medially with a much slower ring contraction rate compared to wild type cells under similar conditions, which we term as cytofission. Interestingly, the high turgor pressure appears to play minimal roles in inhibiting ring contraction in cps1-191 mutants as decreasing the turgor pressure alone does not enable cytofission. We propose that during cytokinesis, the extracellular glycan matrix restricts actomyosin ring contraction and membrane ingression, and remodeling of the extracellular components through division septum synthesis relieves the inhibition and facilitates actomyosin ring contraction.