Simulating Terrestrial Systems [chapter]

Andrew Gettelman, Richard B. Rood
2016 Earth Systems Data and Models  
We have discussed the atmosphere, the ocean, and the sea ice that floats on top of the ocean. The remaining major component of the earth system is probably the closest to you right now: the surface of the earth (unless you are reading this on a boat or a plane). The earth's surface is certainly closest to home. We can think of all the components of the climate on the (permanent) solid surface of the earth as the terrestrial system. Although this is commonly thought of as just modeling the land
more » ... modeling the land surface, it also includes two other important components: the cryosphere (ice and snow) that sits on land and the anthroposphere (the role of humans) in the climate system. We also discuss how human systems are simulated in general, and in climate models. Since all these interactions occur on the surface of the earth, the most useful way to discuss them is by looking at the land, cryosphere, and humans as parts of the terrestrial system. 1 Here we review the role of terrestrial systems in climate and discuss how they are simulated. 2 For a review of many of these basic concepts, see Schimel, D. (
doi:10.1007/978-3-662-48959-8_7 fatcat:xlddy6e6bjh2zb4uot4im5raem