Ecological and biological characteristics of restoration with tree plants in the conditions of the Steppe Pridniprovia
Питання степового лісознавства та лісової рекультивації земель
The change of forest cover in Dnipropetrovsk Oblast within the framework of the concept of agroforestry reclamation development in Ukraine was investigated. It was established that the forested area in Dnipropetrovsk Oblast is currently about 5%, which does not correspond to the optimal level of forest cover for this area, which is determined at 8%. The increase of forested areas within the surveyed territory was observed because of the two such processes, as reforestation and afforestation. In
... d afforestation. In recent years, these processes have shown a steady downward trend in the number of forested areas. Succession series can be fundamentally different in the reproduction of forest plantations due to reforestation and afforestation. During reforestation, the succession series will be much slower, but it will be able to reach climax stage can due to the fact that the plantations will include indigenous plant species. When fast-growing species will be selected during afforestation, plantations will develop more rapidly, but will be much less stable and need constant care. Thus, the processes of forest plantations development in the Dnipropetrovsk region need significant processing and intensification. Until recently, there was no doubt about the beneficial effects of forest vegetation on air quality. A large number of wood species can not only emit volatiles, but also absorb in their biomass a significant amount of toxic elements, such as heavy metals, radionuclides and others. However, recently, due to the large anthropogenic and man-made load on the atmosphere (industrial emissions, transport, pesticides, herbicides, etc.), the process of so-called secondary air pollution has been observed. This is manifested as follows – woody vegetation absorbs toxic substances, processes them into even more toxic and releases them into the air. Significant impact of forests is also observed on the stability of systems. It is known that the higher the species diversity – the lower the dominance index, and the more stable the system. The introduction of new species of woody plants, and behind them new species of fauna increases the diversity of the ecosystem, which is undoubtedly favorable. But on the other hand, this leads to the extinction of typical steppe species, for example, in forest biogeocenoses live a large number of small predators, and most species of steppe birds nesting on the ground can be easily destroyed by them. Forest vegetation significantly changes the landscape. Any woody plants in the steppe create an ecotone, ie the zone of contact of different habitats, which increases the species diversity and, in general, alpha diversity of the territory and, consequently, increases its resistance to anthropogenic and man-made loads. On the other hand, it contributes to the even more intensive disappearance of zonal steppe landscapes, of which there are very few left in the Dnipropetrovsk region due to high population density and a high degree of agricultural development. Forest plantations in the region can be created in two fundamentally different forms – forest belts and forests. It is clear that the creation of forest belts will be timed to the massifs of agricultural land as their main function is to create an optimal microclimate. The creation of forests, first of all, should be aimed at increasing and maintaining species diversity, secondly, it will undoubtedly expand the recreational potential of the region, which is currently clearly insufficient. Currently, when creating any of these types of plantations, there are serious environmental miscalculations. First of all, it is the creation of plantations from allochthonous, that is, from the very beginning species not peculiar to this territory. As a rule, it is a pine or an acacia white. These unpretentious breeds grow quite quickly, well acclimatized, which, of course, makes their use more cost-effective and attractive. But on the other hand, the plantations created from them are much less long-lived than, for example, oak groves typical for this region and, unlike them, require constant care, because they are practically unable to reach menopause.