Extraction of Anthocyanins and Total Phenolic Compounds from Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) Using an Experimental Design Methodology. Part 2: Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction
Two optimized methods for ultrasound-assisted extraction were evaluated for the extraction of two types of acai bioactive compounds: Total anthocyanins (TAs) and total phenolic compounds (TPCs). For the extraction optimization, a Box Behnken factorial design of different variables in the following intervals was used: Methanol-water (25%–75%) for solvent composition, temperatures between 10 and 70 °C, amplitude in the range between 30% and 70% of the maximum amplitude −200 W), extraction solvent
... extraction solvent pH (2–7), the ratio for sample-solvent (0.5 g:10 mL–0.5 g:20 mL), and cycle between 0.2 and 0.7 s. The extraction kinetics were studied using different periods between 5 and 30 min. TA and TPC were analyzed by UHPLC and the Folin–Ciocalteu method, respectively. Optimized conditions for TA were: 51% MeOH in water, 31 °C temperature, pH 6.38, cycle 0.7 s, 65% amplitude, and 0.5 g:10 mL of sample-solvent ratio. Optimized conditions for the TPC were: 49% MeOH in water, 41 °C temperature, pH 6.98, cycle 0.2 s, 30% amplitude, and 0.5 g:10 mL of sample-solvent ratio. Both methods presented a relative standard deviation below 5% in the precision study. The suitability of the methods was tested in real samples. It was confirmed that these methods are feasible for the extraction of the studied bioactive compounds from different açai matrices.