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A packaged 1.1-GHz CMOS voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) with measured phase noise of −92, −112, and −126 dBc/Hz at 10-, 100-, and 600-kHz offsets is demonstrated. According to , these satisfy the GSM requirements. The extrapolated phase noise at a 3-MHz offset is −140 dBc/Hz. The power consumption is 6.8 and 12.7 mW at DD = 1 5 and 2.7 V, respectively. The VCO is implemented in a low-cost 0.8-µm foundry CMOS process, which uses p + substrates with a p − epitaxial layer. Buried channeldoi:10.1109/4.818925 fatcat:rpizhv5tjngwpdagioy3rnzqmm