Analyzing GPCR-Ligand Interactions with the Fragment Molecular Orbital (FMO) Method [chapter]

Alexander Heifetz, Tim James, Michelle Southey, Inaki Morao, Dmitri G. Fedorov, Mike J. Bodkin, Andrea Townsend-Nicholson
2020 Msphere  
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have enormous physiological and biomedical importance, and therefore it is not surprising that they are the targets of many prescribed drugs. Further progress in GPCR drug discovery is highly dependent on the availability of protein structural information. However, the ability of X-ray crystallography to guide the drug discovery process for GPCR targets is limited by the availability of accurate tools to explore receptor-ligand interactions. Visual inspection
more » ... and molecular mechanics approaches cannot explain the full complexity of molecular interactions. Quantum mechanics (QM) approaches are often too computationally expensive to be of practical use in time-sensitive situations, but the fragment molecular orbital (FMO) method offers an excellent solution that combines accuracy, speed, and the ability to reveal key interactions that would otherwise be hard to detect. Integration of GPCR crystallography or homology modelling with FMO reveals atomistic details of the individual contributions of each residue and water molecule toward ligand binding, including an analysis of their chemical nature. Such information is essential for an efficient structure-based drug design (SBDD) process. In this chapter, we describe how to use FMO in the characterization of GPCR-ligand interactions.
doi:10.1007/978-1-0716-0282-9_11 pmid:32016893 fatcat:tmnjrtcsqnejvhh7lyq6aqmliy