1841 The Lancet  
WHEN a stone in the bladder has attained such size that it cannot escape by the urethra with the urine, its removal has been executed, or attempted, in the five following distinct, and, indeed, the only conceivable methods; I shall enumerate them in the order most convenient for treating shortly of each.
doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(02)97689-0 fatcat:njvtb7ir4zfdhomvs57p2rvmyu