The Prevalence of Hepatitis B and C Virus in Patients With End-Stage Kidney Disease on Regular Hemodialysis in Duhok, Iraq: A Brief Report
Avicenna Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Infection with hepatitis B and C virus (HBV and HCV) is a global health problem (1,2). Currently, around 350 and more than 150 million subjects are infected with HBV and HCV, respectively (1,2). Such infections are associated with long-term complications including liver cirrhosis, hepatic failure, and hepatocellular carcinoma (1,2). In addition, infections with HBV and HCV are considered as the most common blood-borne infections in subjects with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) on regular
... lysis (3). The prevalence of HBV has been studied in the general population and it ranges from less than 1% in Western countries to more than 10% in Southeast Asia (4). Additionally, the prevalence of HCV in the general population ranges from 10% in Egypt to less than 1% in developed countries (2). On the other hand, the prevalence of HBV infection in patients with ESKD on regular hemodialysis ranges from less than 1% in developed countries to as high as 20% in developing countries (5). Besides, the prevalence of HCV in such patients ranges from 5% in developing countries to up to 54% in developing countries (6). Previous studies have thoroughly evaluated the prevalence of HBV and HCV in the region (7-9). However, data about the prevalence of HBV and HCV in our region is sparse. Further, continuous monitoring of the prevalence of such viruses in patients with ESKD is important for the early discovery of the outbreaks and the elimination of the viruses. Objectives The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of HBV and HCV in patients with ESKD and on regular hemodialysis. Abstract Background and aim: Hepatitis B and C virus (HBV and HCV) infections are considered as major global public health concerns. Chronic infections may lead to liver cirrhosis, hepatic failure, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HBV and HCV infections in patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) and on regular hemodialysis in Duhok located in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Duhok, Iraq between January 2019 and October 2019. During this period, a total of 143 patients within the age range of 9-72 years old with ESKD visited the Duhok dialysis center for regular hemodialysis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was conducted to test HBV and HCV positivity and then HBV viral load was tested by the real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Finally, HCV positivity was confirmed by the Xpert HCV quantification assay. Results: Among the recruited samples, 5 out of 143 (3.49%) patients were positive for HBV while HBV viral load for those patients was undetected. On the other hand, 3/143 (2.1%) patients tested positive for HCV Ab. All these 3 patients were also confirmed positive by the RT-PCR. Conclusions: ESKD patients on regular analysis showed a low prevalence of HBV and HCV in the Duhok dialysis center. An effective infection control program, vaccination, and treatment of HCV make the elimination of HBV and HCV feasible in such a group.