Intra- and interindividual variability in systemic exposure in humans to 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline and 2-amino-1-methyl- 6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine, carcinogens present in cooked beef

A M Lynch, M G Knize, A R Boobis, N J Gooderham, D S Davies, S Murray
1992 Cancer Research  
During the cooking of beef, the genotoxic heterocyclic aromatic amines 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx), and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) are formed. Little is known about the fate of these compounds in humans or the factors affecting it. We have developed assays based on capillary column gas chromatography-negative ion mass spectrometry capable of the simultaneous measurement of MeIQx,
more » ... rement of MeIQx, DiMeIQx, and PhIP in cooked meat and in human urine using stable isotope labeled analogues. Ten normal, healthy male volunteers were invited to consume a standard cooked meat meal (400-450 g lean beef, cooked as patties on a griddle hotplate) on four separate occasions over a period of 14 months. Following consumption of the test meals, urine was collected from 0 to 8 h, during which time all free amines were excreted and analyzed for MeIQx, DiMeIQx, and PhIP. Subjects ingested 240 +/- 9 (SEM) g cooked meat, which contained 2.2 +/- 0.2 ng MeIQx/g meat, 0.7 +/- 0.1 ng DiMeIQx/g meat, and 16.4 +/- 2.1 ng PhIP/g meat. The variability in relative systemic bioavailability was assessed from the percentage of ingested amine excreted unchanged in the urine. Subjects excreted 2.1 +/- 1.1% of MeIQx and 1.1 +/- 0.5% of PhIP ingested as unchanged amine in the urine. Levels of DiMeIQx in urine, if present, were below the sensitivity of our assay (20 pg/ml) and could not be detected in any of the samples analyzed. Irrespective of dose, urinary excretion of unchanged MeIQx or PhIP (expressed as a percentage of the ingested dose) remained constant for each individual subject. The intraindividual coefficients of variation for MeIQx (28.4%) and PhIP (23.7%) were low and the pooled interday (intrasubject) coefficients of variation for both compounds were only 19 and 3.4%, respectively. In contrast, inter-subject (intraday) variation was greater, with pooled coefficients of variation of 145% for MeIQx and 71% for PhIP. Based on these studies, it should be possible to use the percentage excretion of MeIQx and PhIP to assess the relative bioavailability of these compounds in humans.
pmid:1423264 fatcat:y7w7zt67hrgaviblksz4sali4a