Surface Energy Balance in Jakarta and Neighboring Regions As Simulated Using Fifth Mesoscale Model (MM5)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology
The objective of the present research was to assess the surface energy balance particularly in terms of the computed surface energy and radiation balance and the development of boundary layer over Jakarta and Neighboring Regions (JNR) by means of numerical model of fifth generation of Mesoscale Model (MM5). The MM5 with four domains of 9 kilometers in spatial resolution presenting the outermost and the innermost of JNR is utilized. The research focuses on the third and fourth domains covering
... domains covering the entire JNR. The description between radiation and energy balance at the surface is obtained from the model. The result showed that energy balance is higher in the city area during daytime. Meanwhile, energy components, e.g., surface sensible and latent heat flux showed that at the sea and in the city areas were higher than other areas. Moreover, ground flux showed eastern region was higher than others. In general, radiation and energy balance was higher in the daytime and lower in the nighttime for all regions. The calculation of Bowen Ratio, the ratio of surface sensible and latent heat fluxes, was also higher in the city area, reflecting the dominations of urban and built-up land in the region. Meanwhile, Bowen Ratio in the rural area dominated by irrigated cropland was lower. It is consistent with changes of land cover properties, e.g. albedo, soil moisture, and thermal characteristics. In addition, the boundary layer is also higher in the city. Meanwhile western region dominated by suburban showed higher boundary layer instead of eastern region.