Cerebrovascular events in hemodialysis patients; a retrospective observational study
This study reports findings in subjects who underwent brain imaging for any reason, and examined factors influencing cerebrovascular events (CVEs) in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Methods: We reviewed the files of patients on HD between January 2015 and January 2018. A total of 432 patients who underwent HD for at least 5 months by the January 2015 and who were older than 18 years were included in the study; 264 had been examined by cerebral computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging
... nance imaging examination within the 3 years. Cerebrovascular pathology was detected in 139 of 264 patients. Results: Of the 139 patients, 65 (24.62 %) had ischemic lesions, 25 (9.47%) had hemorrhagic lesions, and 49 (18.56%) had cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD). We compared recorded data and later clinical findings between patients with and those without CVEs. The cause of end-stage renal disease was diabetes in 58.5% of patients with ischemic lesions, 52% in those with hemorrhagic lesions, and 55% in those with CSVD (P < 0.05). Patients with cerebrovascular ischemia were older (P = 0.0001) and had lower serum creatinine (sCr) (P = 0.0001) and higher serum C-reactive protein (CRP) (P = 0.002) levels than normal subjects. Hemorrhagic patients were older (P = 0.003) and had lower sCr (P = 0.003) and serum predialysis potassium (P = 0.003) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) (P = 0.004) levels than normal subjects. Patients with CSVD were older (P < 0.0001) and had lower sCr (P < 0.0001), phosphorus (P < 0.007), and PTH (P < 0.013) and higher CRP (P < 0.002) levels than normal subjects. Conclusions: HD patients with CVEs are older and typically have diabetes mellitus and lower sCr levels.