A STUDY OF ANATOMICAL VARIATIONS IN PATTERNS OF FISSURES AND LOBES IN HUMAN LUNGS: A CADAVERIC STUDY WITH CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE
International Journal of Anatomy and Research
The lungs are essential organs of respiration and are situated in the thoracic cavity on either side of the mediastinum. The arrangement of lung tissue into lobes by fissures facilitates the movements of the lobes in relation to one another thus helping in uniform expansion of the whole lung in inspiration. The fissure may be complete, incomplete, or absent altogether. In the presence of these major variations, the left lung may have three lobes and the right lung may have four or only two
... . The identification of the completeness of the fissure is important before lobectomy, individuals with incomplete fissure are more prone to develop postoperative air leaks. Out of total 84 lungs studied, 46 (55%) were from left side and 38 (45%) were from right side. Out of 38 right lungs examined, the horizontal fissure was absent in 10 lungs (26%) and incomplete in 24 lungs (63%). Complete horizontal fissure was seen in 4 lungs (10%). Oblique fissure was absent in 2 lungs (1%) and incomplete in 24 lungs (63%). The complete oblique fissures was reported in 12 lungs (32%). Out of 46 left lungs, the incomplete oblique fissure was noted in 32 lungs (70%) and complete oblique fissures were present in 10 lungs (22%). The oblique fissure was absent in 4 lungs (9%) Studies have recorded the importance of fissural anatomy in explaining various radiological appearances of interlobar fluid, extension of fluid into an incomplete fissure, or spread of diseases through them. Recognition of laterality of fissure in the lung improves understanding of pneumonia, pleural effusion, collateral air drift along with disease, carcinoma spreading within lung, postoperative air leakage in incomplete fissure and misinterpretation of accessory fissure as atelectasis or consolidation, and segmental localization of the lung for thoracic, cardiothoracic surgeons for planning segmental resections or pulmonary lobectomy.