Engineering translational approaches for molecular diagnostics of cancer: Multifunctional nanomaterials and electrochemical sensors for clinically relevant RNA biomarker detection

Nazmul Islam, University, My, Muhammad Shiddiky
2018
Over the past several years, the human transcriptome has been repeatedly interrogated, and with the recent breakthrough in sequencing technologies, ribonucleic acids (RNAs) comprising different coding and noncoding transcripts, such as messenger RNA (mRNA), microRNA (miRNA), and long-noncoding RNA (lncRNA), are becoming progressively crucial for revolutionising personalised cancer management. Improved diagnostics, prognostics and streamlined therapeutic potentiality makes them an excellent
more » ... e as biomarkers. Non-coding RNAs are key regulators of the gene expression network and are involved in the control of a range of important cellular pathways, such as cell cycle, cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and post-transcriptional regulation. Abnormalities in the expression of these RNAs can affect one or several of these cellular pathways, which might contribute towards initiation and progression of cancer. Despite recent advances in RNA-based fundamental research, their detection approaches are largely confined to laboratory-based molecular biology techniques, such as quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), microarrays, and RNA sequencing. Although the analytical performance and reliability of these methods are excellent, most of these methods require enzymatic amplification, cumbersome sample pre-treatment, multi-step assay protocol, high maintenance cost, and technical expertise. The development of a simple, sensitive, and low cost method that can be used for rapid detection of RNA biomarkers for a meaningful clinical application at the time and place of patient care (i.e., point-of-care) is of great importance to clinical and translational research. This PhD project endeavours to engineer such translational approaches to circumvent the aforementioned challenges for developing an inexpensive, sensitive, specific, and portable biosensor platform. This thesis initially studies the biogenesis, diagnostic, and prognostic potential of RNA biomarkers followed by a comprehen [...]
doi:10.25904/1912/2549 fatcat:7owtapvl7rfrtlbdgl6vex6qoi