Dynamic least-squares kernel density modeling of Fokker-Planck equations with application to neural population
Physical Review E
The dynamic least-squares kernel density ͑LSQKD͒ model ͓C. Pantano and B. Shotorban, Phys. Rev. E 76, 066705 ͑2007͔͒ is used to solve the Fokker-Planck equations. In this model the probability density function ͑PDF͒ is approximated by a linear combination of basis functions with unknown parameters whose governing equations are determined by a global least-squares approximation of the PDF in the phase space. In this work basis functions are set to be Gaussian for which the mean, variance, and
... n, variance, and covariances are governed by a set of partial differential equations ͑PDEs͒ or ordinary differential equations ͑ODEs͒ depending on what phase-space variables are approximated by Gaussian functions. Three sample problems of univariate double-well potential, bivariate bistable neurodynamical system ͓G. Deco and D. Martí, Phys. Rev. E 75, 031913 ͑2007͔͒, and bivariate Brownian particles in a nonuniform gas are studied. The LSQKD is verified for these problems as its results are compared against the results of the method of characteristics in nondiffusive cases and the stochastic particle method in diffusive cases. For the double-well potential problem it is observed that for low to moderate diffusivity the dynamic LSQKD well predicts the stationary PDF for which there is an exact solution. A similar observation is made for the bistable neurodynamical system. In both these problems least-squares approximation is made on all phase-space variables resulting in a set of ODEs with time as the independent variable for the Gaussian function parameters. In the problem of Brownian particles in a nonuniform gas, this approximation is made only for the particle velocity variable leading to a set of PDEs with time and particle position as independent variables. Solving these PDEs, a very good performance by LSQKD is observed for a wide range of diffusivities.