Alteration of Iron Concentration in Alzheimer's Disease as a Possible Diagnostic Biomarker Unveiling Ferroptosis

Eleonora Ficiarà, Zunaira Munir, Silvia Boschi, Maria Eugenia Caligiuri, Caterina Guiot
2021 International Journal of Molecular Sciences  
Proper functioning of all organs, including the brain, requires iron. It is present in different forms in biological fluids, and alterations in its distribution can induce oxidative stress and neurodegeneration. However, the clinical parameters normally used for monitoring iron concentration in biological fluids (i.e., serum and cerebrospinal fluid) can hardly detect the quantity of circulating iron, while indirect measurements, e.g., magnetic resonance imaging, require further validation. This
more » ... er validation. This review summarizes the mechanisms involved in brain iron metabolism, homeostasis, and iron imbalance caused by alterations detectable by standard and non-standard indicators of iron status. These indicators for iron transport, storage, and metabolism can help to understand which biomarkers can better detect iron imbalances responsible for neurodegenerative diseases.
doi:10.3390/ijms22094479 pmid:33923052 fatcat:r634xslidjbwhoy4qbv4j2y3w4