A Single Mutation in the VP1 Gene of Enterovirus 71 Enhances Viral Binding to Heparan Sulfate and Impairs Viral Pathogenicity in Mice

Xianliang Ke, Yuan Zhang, Yan Liu, Yuanjiu Miao, Caishang Zheng, Dan Luo, Jianhong Sun, Qinxue Hu, Yi Xu, Hanzhong Wang, Zhenhua Zheng
2020 Viruses  
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major causative pathogen of human hand, foot, and mouth disease (hHFMD) and has evolved to use various cellular receptors for infection. However, the relationship between receptor preference and EV71 virulence has not been fully revealed. By using reverse genetics, we identified that a single E98K mutation in VP1 is responsible for rapid viral replication in vitro. The E98K mutation enhanced binding of EV71-GZCII to cells in a heparan sulfate (HS)-dependent manner,
more » ... nd it attenuated the virulence of EV71-GZCII in BALB/c mice, indicating that the HS-binding property is negatively associated with viral virulence. HS is widely expressed in vascular endothelial cells in different mouse tissues, and weak colocalization of HS with scavenger receptor B2 (SCARB2) was detected. The cGZCII-98K virus bound more efficiently to mouse tissue homogenates, and the cGZCII-98K virus titers in mouse tissues and blood were much lower than the cGZCII virus titers. Together, these findings suggest that the enhanced adsorption of the cGZCII-98K virus, which likely occurs through HS, is unable to support the efficient replication of EV71 in vivo. Our study confirmed the role of HS-binding sites in EV71 infection and highlighted the importance of the HS receptor in EV71 pathogenesis.
doi:10.3390/v12080883 pmid:32823486 fatcat:3kykpgzlonhmffmbpargxxmffa