Assessment of Postnatal Pulmonary Adaption in Bovine Neonates Using Electric Impedance Tomography (EIT)
Several aspects of postnatal pulmonary adaption in the bovine neonate remain unclear, particularly the dynamics and regional ventilation of the lungs. We used electric impedance tomography (EIT) to measure changes in ventilation in the first 3 weeks of life in 20 non-sedated neonatal calves born without difficulty in sternal recumbency. Arterial blood gas variables were determined in the first 24 h after birth. Immediately after birth, dorsal parts of the lungs had 4.53% ± 2.82% nondependent
... ent spaces (NSS), and ventral parts had 5.23% ± 2.66% dependent silent spaces (DSS). The latter increased in the first hour, presumably because of gravity-driven ventral movement of residual amniotic fluid. The remaining lung regions had good ventilation immediately after birth, and the percentage of lung regions with high ventilation increased significantly during the study period. The centre of ventilation was always dorsal to and on the right of the theoretical centre of ventilation. The right lung was responsible for a significantly larger proportion of ventilation (63.84% ± 12.74%, p < 0.00001) compared with the left lung. In the right lung, the centrodorsal lung area was the most ventilated, whereas, in the left lung, it was the centroventral area. Tidal impedance changes, serving as a surrogate for tidal volume, increased in the first 3 weeks of life (p < 0.00001). This study shows the dynamic changes in lung ventilation in the bovine neonate according to EIT measurements. The findings form a basis for the recognition of structural and functional lung disorders in neonatal calves.