Incidence of Musculoskeletal Symptoms in Teachers for the Diagnosis and Management of Specific Preventive Physiotherapeutic Strategies

Jaqueline Santos Silva Lopes
2019 Biomedical Journal of Scientific & Technical Research  
Introduction Studies on teaching work and health in the country are relevant, since evidence shows high data of teachers in Brazil, corresponding to 2,497,918 [1] . In this sense, Cortez et al. [2] report in their study the need for understanding related to aspects of worker's health focused specifically on teachers, as a tool that helps to promote improvements in working conditions and consequently in the development of national collective health, at primary care level. From this perspective,
more » ... this perspective, the study by Ceballos and Santos [3] found that the major reasons related to the incidence of pathological conditions and subsequent removal from teaching activities are correlated with psychic, behavioral, respiratory, vocal and musculoskeletal problems, with the last being reported as the most frequent difficulties. Such implications can be extrapolated to other labor populations, since it seems to be inserted in general contexts, marked by internal and external overload. Also, the study by Ribeiro et al. [4], associates musculoskeletal pain in teachers with occupational factors, which include long class duration in the same position, incorrect carrying of teacher's materials, inadequate height and length of school furniture, correction of school activities of students in inadequate positions, movements performed in the classroom that compromise posture, prolonged elevation of the upper limb and extension of the cervical spine when writing on the board, large number of classes, high number of students per class, insufficient rest period and high workload weekly. Accordingly, the study by Calixto et al. [5], reveals that the musculoskeletal system, as a result of these factors, suffers static and dynamic overload, which progresses to acute disability to chronic painful syndromes with functional disability, which may limit the performance of work and leisure activities. Still, the study by Fernandes et al. [6] , points out that besides the biomechanical factors present in work activities, repetitive movements, ergonomically unfavorable environment for the teacher and high workload, there are the individual physical characteristics and lifestyle, which found in a study that there is a prevalence of symptoms. musculo-Abstract The present study aimed to investigate the epidemiological profile of musculoskeletal disorders and the perspective on preventive physiotherapy in elementary school teachers. This is a descriptive observational study with cross-sectional cohort, which included a total of 61 teachers of both genders, aged 21 to 56 years. It was found that the most affected body anatomical regions, due to the usual work practice performed in the last 12 months, were shoulders (39.3%), lumbar spine (59%), wrist and hands (45.9%), causing a notable negative impact in work tasks performing. It is concluded that these dysfunctions occur due to static postures and inadequate and repetitive movements and highlight the need for ergonomic information that would prevent the development of such disorders, characterized by primary health care promoted by physiotherapists. The last question in the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire referred to symptoms in the last 7 days preceding the survey, being answered positively by 46.1% of the female group and 22.2% of the male group for lumbar spine, 26.9%. of the female group and 22.2% of the male group for shoulders, 30.7% of the female group and 11.1% of the male group for the neck and 32.6% of the female group for wrists / hands, not being mentioned by the group male. Similar analyses for Carvalho [11] with 27.4% for lumbar, Fernandes; Rocha and Fagundes [7] with 26.4% for shoulders, Mango el al. [8] with 25.3% for the neck and Carvalho et al. [12] with 14.6% for fists / hands. With these results, it is verified that the pain caused in
doi:10.26717/bjstr.2019.22.003770 fatcat:mgiipe5oxberppodpg7p3hsg2u